From the Abstract:
The ability to anticipate forthcoming events has clear evolutionary advantages, and predictive successes or failures often entail signiﬁcant psychological and physiological consequences. In music perception, the conﬁrmation and violation of expectations are critical to the communication of emotion and aesthetic effects of a composition. Neuroscientiﬁc research on musical expectations has focused on harmony. Although harmony is important in Western tonal styles, other musical traditions, emphasizing pitch and melody, have been rather neglected. In this study, we investigated melodic pitch expectations elicited by ecologically valid musical stimuli by drawing together computational, behavioural, and electrophysiological evidence.